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2015


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Scalable Robust Principal Component Analysis using Grassmann Averages

Hauberg, S., Feragen, A., Enficiaud, R., Black, M.

IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), December 2015 (article)

Abstract
In large datasets, manual data verification is impossible, and we must expect the number of outliers to increase with data size. While principal component analysis (PCA) can reduce data size, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA are not scalable. We note that in a zero-mean dataset, each observation spans a one-dimensional subspace, giving a point on the Grassmann manifold. We show that the average subspace corresponds to the leading principal component for Gaussian data. We provide a simple algorithm for computing this Grassmann Average (GA), and show that the subspace estimate is less sensitive to outliers than PCA for general distributions. Because averages can be efficiently computed, we immediately gain scalability. We exploit robust averaging to formulate the Robust Grassmann Average (RGA) as a form of robust PCA. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has linear computational complexity and minimal memory requirements. We demonstrate TGA for background modeling, video restoration, and shadow removal. We show scalability by performing robust PCA on the entire Star Wars IV movie; a task beyond any current method. Source code is available online.

preprint pdf from publisher supplemental Project Page [BibTex]

2015


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SMPL: A Skinned Multi-Person Linear Model

Loper, M., Mahmood, N., Romero, J., Pons-Moll, G., Black, M. J.

ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH Asia), 34(6):248:1-248:16, ACM, New York, NY, October 2015 (article)

Abstract
We present a learned model of human body shape and pose-dependent shape variation that is more accurate than previous models and is compatible with existing graphics pipelines. Our Skinned Multi-Person Linear model (SMPL) is a skinned vertex-based model that accurately represents a wide variety of body shapes in natural human poses. The parameters of the model are learned from data including the rest pose template, blend weights, pose-dependent blend shapes, identity-dependent blend shapes, and a regressor from vertices to joint locations. Unlike previous models, the pose-dependent blend shapes are a linear function of the elements of the pose rotation matrices. This simple formulation enables training the entire model from a relatively large number of aligned 3D meshes of different people in different poses. We quantitatively evaluate variants of SMPL using linear or dual-quaternion blend skinning and show that both are more accurate than a Blend-SCAPE model trained on the same data. We also extend SMPL to realistically model dynamic soft-tissue deformations. Because it is based on blend skinning, SMPL is compatible with existing rendering engines and we make it available for research purposes.

pdf video code/model errata DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

pdf video code/model errata DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


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Dyna: A Model of Dynamic Human Shape in Motion

Pons-Moll, G., Romero, J., Mahmood, N., Black, M. J.

ACM Transactions on Graphics, (Proc. SIGGRAPH), 34(4):120:1-120:14, ACM, August 2015 (article)

Abstract
To look human, digital full-body avatars need to have soft tissue deformations like those of real people. We learn a model of soft-tissue deformations from examples using a high-resolution 4D capture system and a method that accurately registers a template mesh to sequences of 3D scans. Using over 40,000 scans of ten subjects, we learn how soft tissue motion causes mesh triangles to deform relative to a base 3D body model. Our Dyna model uses a low-dimensional linear subspace to approximate soft-tissue deformation and relates the subspace coefficients to the changing pose of the body. Dyna uses a second-order auto-regressive model that predicts soft-tissue deformations based on previous deformations, the velocity and acceleration of the body, and the angular velocities and accelerations of the limbs. Dyna also models how deformations vary with a person’s body mass index (BMI), producing different deformations for people with different shapes. Dyna realistically represents the dynamics of soft tissue for previously unseen subjects and motions. We provide tools for animators to modify the deformations and apply them to new stylized characters.

pdf preprint video data DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

pdf preprint video data DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


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Linking Objects to Actions: Encoding of Target Object and Grasping Strategy in Primate Ventral Premotor Cortex

Vargas-Irwin, C. E., Franquemont, L., Black, M. J., Donoghue, J. P.

Journal of Neuroscience, 35(30):10888-10897, July 2015 (article)

Abstract
Neural activity in ventral premotor cortex (PMv) has been associated with the process of matching perceived objects with the motor commands needed to grasp them. It remains unclear how PMv networks can flexibly link percepts of objects affording multiple grasp options into a final desired hand action. Here, we use a relational encoding approach to track the functional state of PMv neuronal ensembles in macaque monkeys through the process of passive viewing, grip planning, and grasping movement execution. We used objects affording multiple possible grip strategies. The task included separate instructed delay periods for object presentation and grip instruction. This approach allowed us to distinguish responses elicited by the visual presentation of the objects from those associated with selecting a given motor plan for grasping. We show that PMv continuously incorporates information related to object shape and grip strategy as it becomes available, revealing a transition from a set of ensemble states initially most closely related to objects, to a new set of ensemble patterns reflecting unique object-grip combinations. These results suggest that PMv dynamically combines percepts, gradually navigating toward activity patterns associated with specific volitional actions, rather than directly mapping perceptual object properties onto categorical grip representations. Our results support the idea that PMv is part of a network that dynamically computes motor plans from perceptual information. Significance Statement: The present work demonstrates that the activity of groups of neurons in primate ventral premotor cortex reflects information related to visually presented objects, as well as the motor strategy used to grasp them, linking individual objects to multiple possible grips. PMv could provide useful control signals for neuroprosthetic assistive devices designed to interact with objects in a flexible way.

publisher link DOI Project Page [BibTex]

publisher link DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Multi-view and 3D Deformable Part Models

Pepik, B., Stark, M., Gehler, P., Schiele, B.

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 37(11):14, IEEE, March 2015 (article)

Abstract
As objects are inherently 3-dimensional, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2], 3D object classes [3], Pascal3D+ [4], Pascal VOC 2007 [5], EPFL multi-view cars [6]).

DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Spike train SIMilarity Space (SSIMS): A framework for single neuron and ensemble data analysis

Vargas-Irwin, C. E., Brandman, D. M., Zimmermann, J. B., Donoghue, J. P., Black, M. J.

Neural Computation, 27(1):1-31, MIT Press, January 2015 (article)

Abstract
We present a method to evaluate the relative similarity of neural spiking patterns by combining spike train distance metrics with dimensionality reduction. Spike train distance metrics provide an estimate of similarity between activity patterns at multiple temporal resolutions. Vectors of pair-wise distances are used to represent the intrinsic relationships between multiple activity patterns at the level of single units or neuronal ensembles. Dimensionality reduction is then used to project the data into concise representations suitable for clustering analysis as well as exploratory visualization. Algorithm performance and robustness are evaluated using multielectrode ensemble activity data recorded in behaving primates. We demonstrate how Spike train SIMilarity Space (SSIMS) analysis captures the relationship between goal directions for an 8-directional reaching task and successfully segregates grasp types in a 3D grasping task in the absence of kinematic information. The algorithm enables exploration of virtually any type of neural spiking (time series) data, providing similarity-based clustering of neural activity states with minimal assumptions about potential information encoding models.

pdf: publisher site pdf: author's proof DOI Project Page [BibTex]

pdf: publisher site pdf: author's proof DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Metric Regression Forests for Correspondence Estimation

Pons-Moll, G., Taylor, J., Shotton, J., Hertzmann, A., Fitzgibbon, A.

International Journal of Computer Vision, pages: 1-13, 2015 (article)

springer PDF Project Page [BibTex]

springer PDF Project Page [BibTex]


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Formation control driven by cooperative object tracking

Lima, P., Ahmad, A., Dias, A., Conceição, A., Moreira, A., Silva, E., Almeida, L., Oliveira, L., Nascimento, T.

Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 63(1):68-79, 2015 (article)

Abstract
In this paper we introduce a formation control loop that maximizes the performance of the cooperative perception of a tracked target by a team of mobile robots, while maintaining the team in formation, with a dynamically adjustable geometry which is a function of the quality of the target perception by the team. In the formation control loop, the controller module is a distributed non-linear model predictive controller and the estimator module fuses local estimates of the target state, obtained by a particle filter at each robot. The two modules and their integration are described in detail, including a real-time database associated to a wireless communication protocol that facilitates the exchange of state data while reducing collisions among team members. Simulation and real robot results for indoor and outdoor teams of different robots are presented. The results highlight how our method successfully enables a team of homogeneous robots to minimize the total uncertainty of the tracked target cooperative estimate while complying with performance criteria such as keeping a pre-set distance between the teammates and the target, avoiding collisions with teammates and/or surrounding obstacles.

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2000


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Probabilistic detection and tracking of motion boundaries

Black, M. J., Fleet, D. J.

Int. J. of Computer Vision, 38(3):231-245, July 2000 (article)

Abstract
We propose a Bayesian framework for representing and recognizing local image motion in terms of two basic models: translational motion and motion boundaries. Motion boundaries are represented using a non-linear generative model that explicitly encodes the orientation of the boundary, the velocities on either side, the motion of the occluding edge over time, and the appearance/disappearance of pixels at the boundary. We represent the posterior probability distribution over the model parameters given the image data using discrete samples. This distribution is propagated over time using a particle filtering algorithm. To efficiently represent such a high-dimensional space we initialize samples using the responses of a low-level motion discontinuity detector. The formulation and computational model provide a general probabilistic framework for motion estimation with multiple, non-linear, models.

pdf pdf from publisher Video [BibTex]

2000

pdf pdf from publisher Video [BibTex]


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Design and use of linear models for image motion analysis

Fleet, D. J., Black, M. J., Yacoob, Y., Jepson, A. D.

Int. J. of Computer Vision, 36(3):171-193, 2000 (article)

Abstract
Linear parameterized models of optical flow, particularly affine models, have become widespread in image motion analysis. The linear model coefficients are straightforward to estimate, and they provide reliable estimates of the optical flow of smooth surfaces. Here we explore the use of parameterized motion models that represent much more varied and complex motions. Our goals are threefold: to construct linear bases for complex motion phenomena; to estimate the coefficients of these linear models; and to recognize or classify image motions from the estimated coefficients. We consider two broad classes of motions: i) generic “motion features” such as motion discontinuities and moving bars; and ii) non-rigid, object-specific, motions such as the motion of human mouths. For motion features we construct a basis of steerable flow fields that approximate the motion features. For object-specific motions we construct basis flow fields from example motions using principal component analysis. In both cases, the model coefficients can be estimated directly from spatiotemporal image derivatives with a robust, multi-resolution scheme. Finally, we show how these model coefficients can be use to detect and recognize specific motions such as occlusion boundaries and facial expressions.

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl bildschirmfoto 2012 12 06 um 09.48.16
Robustly estimating changes in image appearance

Black, M. J., Fleet, D. J., Yacoob, Y.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 78(1):8-31, 2000 (article)

Abstract
We propose a generalized model of image “appearance change” in which brightness variation over time is represented as a probabilistic mixture of different causes. We define four generative models of appearance change due to (1) object or camera motion; (2) illumination phenomena; (3) specular reflections; and (4) “iconic changes” which are specific to the objects being viewed. These iconic changes include complex occlusion events and changes in the material properties of the objects. We develop a robust statistical framework for recovering these appearance changes in image sequences. This approach generalizes previous work on optical flow to provide a richer description of image events and more reliable estimates of image motion in the presence of shadows and specular reflections.

pdf pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]

pdf pdf from publisher DOI [BibTex]


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Image segmentation using robust mixture models

Black, M. J., Jepson, A. D.

US Pat. 5,802,203, June 1995 (patent)

pdf on-line at USPTO [BibTex]

1994


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A computational and evolutionary perspective on the role of representation in computer vision

Tarr, M. J., Black, M. J.

CVGIP: Image Understanding, 60(1):65-73, July 1994 (article)

Abstract
Recently, the assumed goal of computer vision, reconstructing a representation of the scene, has been critcized as unproductive and impractical. Critics have suggested that the reconstructive approach should be supplanted by a new purposive approach that emphasizes functionality and task driven perception at the cost of general vision. In response to these arguments, we claim that the recovery paradigm central to the reconstructive approach is viable, and, moreover, provides a promising framework for understanding and modeling general purpose vision in humans and machines. An examination of the goals of vision from an evolutionary perspective and a case study involving the recovery of optic flow support this hypothesis. In particular, while we acknowledge that there are instances where the purposive approach may be appropriate, these are insufficient for implementing the wide range of visual tasks exhibited by humans (the kind of flexible vision system presumed to be an end-goal of artificial intelligence). Furthermore, there are instances, such as recent work on the estimation of optic flow, where the recovery paradigm may yield useful and robust results. Thus, contrary to certain claims, the purposive approach does not obviate the need for recovery and reconstruction of flexible representations of the world.

pdf [BibTex]

1994

pdf [BibTex]


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Reconstruction and purpose

Tarr, M. J., Black, M. J.

CVGIP: Image Understanding, 60(1):113-118, July 1994 (article)

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]